Sample Exam Questions for "Groups"

Last updated:
04 Nov 2005


  1. "If we take care of individuals, the groups will take care of themselves” (Allport, 1919, p.229). This has been a guiding statement for the development of Social Psychology in North America. List some of the social psychology issues or problems that have been largely ignored by North American researchers and briefly explain why they have been ignored.
  2. What is a group?  What isn't a group?
  3. What are the effects of groups on individuals?
  4. What is Social Facilitation and why does it occur?
  5. What is Social Loafing and why does it occur?
  6. How can Social Loafing be minimised?
  7. What effect does "being in a group" have on decision making?
  8. Does group brainstorming enhance creativity?  Explain.
  9. What is the mere group effect?
  10. What happens when interpersonal-oriented leaders and task-oriented leaders are each combined with interpersonal-oriented groups and task-oriented groups?

Multiple choice

Which one is not a group?
a. Ed and Naomi playing cards
b. Three babies, between 9 and 11 months old, in a play room
c. The Smith family: Gerald, Becka, and Bob
d. All the women in the city of Richmond who have vanity plates
e. All are groups

The evidence on group decision-making suggests that the judgements made by members in a group are __________________ than the mean of individual members’ initial position made individually.

a. more risky
b. less risky
c. about equally risky
d. more informed
e. less informed

Risky shift is an example of_________________.

a. group exaggeration
b. group polarisation
c. group consensus
d. groupthink
e. groupiness

When people are in a big group, and they are wearing masks, the probability is increased that they will:

a. become deindividuated
b. become frustrated
c. become dehumanised
d. have a catharsis
e. become violent

A likely reason for a group to decide to be more extreme than most of its members’ initial positions is that members :

a. are exposed to new arguments which support and go further than their existing position
b. feel obliged to agree with the majority
c. often just want to get the job over with
d. are fearful of looking foolish to other group members
e. engage in social loafing

If timber companies engage in excess logging of native forests, they may gain financially in the short-term but the resource may be lost to all in the long-term. This is an example of:

a. a commons dilemma
b. a public goods dilemma
c. the free-rider effect
d. social loafing
e. none of the above

The Collective Effort Model argues that social loafing occurs because of:

a. a diffusion of individual responsibility as group size increases
b. co-ordination losses in groups
c. decreased social impact of instructions to work harder in groups
d. evaluation apprehension
e. weak links between an individual’s efforts and their outcomes when working in groups

An experiment by Triplett in 1898 was a forerunner to later work dealing with:

a. social facilitation
b. group dynamics
c. attitude measurement
d. prejudice
e. social influence

An experiment performed by Latane, Williams and Harkins (1979), where participants had to shout loudly either alone or in real or pseudo groups, demonstrated:

a. the difference between co-ordination loss and motivation loss in groups.
b. social facilitation
c. social inhibition
d. group polarisation
e. the operation of evaluation apprehension in groups

According to the drive theory of social facilitation, the presence of others:

a. facilitates performance on skilled tasks
b. inhibits performance on skilled tasks
c. facilitates performance on unskilled tasks
d. inhibits performance on unskilled tasks
e. facilitates performance on skilled tasks and inhibits performance on unskilled tasks

According to Zajonc's drive theory of social facilitation, the presence of others produces an increase in:
a. feelings of responsibility
b. diffusion of responsibility
c. arousal
d. empathy

Someone who takes advantage of a shared public resource, without contributing to its maintenance, is known as:

a. a delinquent
b. a beneficiary
c. a generalised social loafer
d. a free rider
e. an outgroup member

Social loafing can be reduced by:

a. increasing anonymity in groups
b. decreasing the value of the group task
c. increasing identification with the group
d. weakening the links between effort, performance and outcomes
e. all of the above

Which describes the social loafing phenomenon?
a. when people are doing a task, they work harder when getting paid for it
when people are doing a task, they work harder when it's their own project rather than one they've been assigned
when people work together on a joint task, each member exerts less effort than when they work alone
when people are doing a task, they work harder when being watched

Social loafing seems to occur:
a. consistently across various kinds of cultures
in individualistic cultures, but not in collectivistic cultures
in collectivistic cultures, but not in individualistic cultures
among male participants, but not among female participants

Some researchers have led participants to believe that their individual output could be readily identified, even when they were working in a group. Results indicate that:
a. social loafing was reduced under these circumstances
social loafing was increased under these circumstances
social loafing was unaffected under these circumstances
participants did not believe their individual output could be identified; thus, there were no meaningful results

One way to decrease social loafing relies on:
a. relaxing conformity norms in favor of individually driven norms
decreasing reward salience
having group members perform disjunctive tasks
increasing group members commitment to task performance

Bobby studies group productivity by watching same- and mixed-sex groups in the library, and keeping a record of how much time they spend talking versus studying. Bobby is carrying out a(n) ___ study.
a. survey
b. experimental
c. observational
d. case study

Which one of the following statements is false?
a. Conflict with outgroups increases internal cohesion.
b. Outgroup rejection is stronger than ingroup favoritism.
c. Conflict with outgroups sometimes increases outgroup rejection.
d. Between-group boundaries become stronger during conflict.
e. Conflict between groups promotes the development of a group identity.

The evaluation apprehension hypothesis predicts that social facilitation of a performer's behavior will occur when the performer is observed by an audience that:
a. wears blindfolds and earplugs to keep them from observing the performer
b. is merely present
c. can observe and evaluate the performer
d. all of the above should produce the same level of social facilitation

According to equity theory, a common reaction by persons who perceive they've received a lesser outcome than they deserve in a relationship is:
a. to increase their contributions to the relationship
to decrease their contributions to the relationship
to seek smaller outcomes in the relationship
the examine their own outcomes without paying attention to the partner's outcomes

If a group composed of students who moderately approve of cheating get together to exchange their shared views, then the group polarization hypothesis predicts that their views after the discussion will be:
a. more extreme than the views they initially held
b. less extreme than the views the initially held
c. no different than the views they initially held
d. split apart into opposing groups, some in favor and some against cheating

Group memberships that become a part of the working self-concept contribute to a sense of:
a. self-esteem
b. self-efficacy
c. self-focusing
d. social identity

Niles has just been invited to join a prestigious social group (snobs-r-us). Only 4 people per year are accepted into this group. Such a. a. acceptance should enhance Niles':
b. self-concept
c. financial status
d. self-assessment
e. self-monitoring

The differences in relative position or rank of persons in a group, such as some roles carry considerable prestige, are reflections of differences in:
a. status
b. norms
c. role ambiguity
d. cohesiveness

Group behaviors are generally dictated by:
a. the path of least resistance
b. group norms
c. the path of least stress
d. social facilitation

Which of the following situations is an example of the effects of social facilitation?
a. finishing a paper an hour before it is due to be handed in
b. a beginner raising the level of her tennis game in front of a crowd
c. helping another to finish a typing task more quickly
d. an athlete senior tripping on the approach to the long jump in front of the track team

Whether social facilitation helps or hinders performance depends on whether:
a. many people are watching
b. the dominant response is the correct one
c. the task performer knows the watchers
d. the task causes positive or negative affect