Academic Outcomes & Cognitive Processes in Outdoor & Adventure Education Programs

James Neill
Last updated:
29 Nov 2003


Conrad, D., & Hedin, D. (1981)  National assessment of experiential education: Summary and implications.  Journal of Experiential Education, 4(2), 6-20.

Expeditionary Learning Outward Bound (c.2000). Evidence of success: What the research shows. http://www.elob.org/evidence/evidence.html (also see Testimonials)

Gass, M. (1987). The effects of a wilderness orientation program on college students.  Journal of Experiential Education, 10(2), 30-33.

Glock, J., Wertz, S., Meyer, M. Discovering the naturalist intelligence: Science in the schoolyard. Acorn Naturalistis.

Hattie, J., Marsh, H. W., Neill, J. T., & Richards, G. E. (1997). Adventure education and Outward Bound: Out-of-class experiences that make a lasting difference. Review of Educational Research, 67, 43-87.  http://www.wilderdom.com/abstracts/Hattieetal1997AdventureEducationMetaanalysis.htm

Heyliger, J. (2002). The effects of experiential education on the academic achievement of middle and high school students. http://www.wilderdom.com//schools/Heyliger2002ExperientialEducationAcademicAchievementSchool.doc [.doc; .1MB]

Heyliger, J. (2003). School-based Project Adventure research references.  http://www.wilderdom.com/pabibliography.htm#ResearchReferences

Hogan, R. (2002).  Might outdoor education help develop intelligence? Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, 6(2).

Johnson, D.W., & Johnson, R.T., & Stanne, M. B. (2000, May)  Cooperative learning methods: A meta-analysis.   http://www.co-operation.org/pages/cl-methods.html

Journal of Experiential Education (1978-present). Subject index: School-based programs and issues. http://www.aee.org/publications/journal/school_based_prog_iss.html

Knapp, C. (1992). Thinking in outdoor inquiry. ERIC Digest ED348198. http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed348198.html

Kraft,  R. & Kielsmeier, J. (Eds.) (1986). Experiential education and the schools (2nd ed.).  Association for Experiential Education: Boulder, CO. [3rd edition is called Experiential Learning in Schools & Higher Education]

Marsh, H. W. & Richards, G. E. (1988). The Outward Bound Bridging Course for low-achieving males: Effects on academic achievement and multidimensional self-concepts. Australian Journal of Psychology, 40, 281-298.

Neill, J. T. (1997).  Outdoor education in the schools: What can it achieve? In Catalysts for Change: 10th National Outdoor Education Conference Proceedings Jan 20-24, pp. 193-201. Collaroy Beach, Sydney, Australia: The Outdoor Professionals.  http://www.wilderdom.com/abstracts/Neill1997SchoolsOutdoorEducationAchieve.htm

Neill, J. T. (1998). The wilderness of neural possibility.  http://www.wilderdom.com/vignettes/WildernessPossibility.html

Neill, J. T. (2001). Adolescent development and outdoor education in schools. http://www.wilderdom.com/Schools.html

Richards, G. & Richards, M. (1981).  Outward Bound Bridging Course 1981:  An Investigation and Evaluation of an Outward Bound Remedial Programme.  Sydney: Australian Outward Bound School.

Starnes, B.A. (1999). The Foxfire Approach to Teaching and Learning:  John Dewey, Experiential Learning, and the Core Practices. ERIC Digest ED426826. http://www.ericfacility.net/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed426826.html

Stevens, P. W. & Richards, A. (1992). Changing schools through experiential education.  ERIC Digest ED345929. http://www.ericfacility.net/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed345929.html

Ulichny, P. (2000). Academic Achievement in Two Expeditionary Learning/Outward Bound Demonstration Schools. http://www.elob.org/evidence/success/ulichny.html

Vlamis, E., & Neill, J.T. (2003).  Using Challenge Courses to Develop Studentsí Multiple Intelligences.    Unpublished manuscript.