Adventure Therapy

Adventure Therapy References

James Neill
Last updated:
10 June 2013
Copyright

Contents

Books & Conference Proceedings

Abbott, C. (1990). The adventure revolution: Using the outdoors in corrections - history and concepts. Proceedings of the 1st National Conference on Outdoor/Wilderness Programs for Offenders. Adult Corrective Services: Canberra, ACT, Australia.

Burns, G. W. (1998). Nature-guided therapy: Brief integrative strategies for health and well-being. Philadelphia, PA: Brunner/Mazel.

Davis-Berman, J., & Berman, D. (1994) Wilderness therapy. Dubuque, IO: Kendall/Hunt. Book review by Bowles.

Gass, M. A. (Ed.) (1993). Adventure therapy: Therapeutic applications of adventure programming.  Dubuque, IO: Kendall/Hunt. Book review by Bowles.

Gass, M.A., Gillis, H.L., Russell, K.C. (2012). Adventure therapy: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Routledge.

Itin, C. M. (Ed.) (1998, July). Proceedings of the First International Adventure Therapy Conference: Exploring the boundaries.  Camping and Outdoor Education Association of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.

Richards, K. (Ed.) (2003).  Therapy within adventure: Proceedings of the Second International Adventure Therapy Conference. *.

Schoel, J., & Maizell, R. (2002). Exploring islands of healing: New perspectives on adventure based counseling. Beverly, MA: Project Adventure.

Schoel, J., Prouty, D., & Radcliffe, P. (1988). Islands of healing: A guide to adventure based counseling. Hamilton, MA: Project Adventure. Book review by OutdoorsHub.

Philosophy, History, Theory, & Process

Asher, S. J., Huffaker, G. Q., & McNally, M. (1994). Therapeutic considerations of wilderness experiences for incest and rape survivors. Special Issue: Wilderness therapy for Women: The Power of Adventure. Women and Therapy, 15(3-4), 185-203.

Bacon, S., & Kimball, R. (1989). The wilderness challenge model. In R. D. Lyman (Ed.), Residential and inpatient treatment of children and adolescents. New York: Plenum Press.

Barrett, J. & Greenaway, R. (1995) Why adventure: The role and value of outdoor adventure in young people's personal and social development, Coventry: Foundation for Outdoor Adventure.

Beringer, A., & Martin, P. (2003). On adventure therapy and the natural worlds: Respecting nature's healing.   Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 3(1), 29-40.

Berman, D. (1995). Adventure therapy: Current status and directions. Journal of Experiential Education, 18(2), 61-62.

Berman, D., & Davis-Berman, J. (1995).  Adventure as psychotherapy: A mental health perspective. Journal of Leisurability, 22(2), *.

Berman, D., & Davis-Berman, J. (2000). Therapeutic uses of outdoor education. ERIC Digest.

Blanchard, C. W. (1992). Experiential therapy with troubled youth: The ropes course for adolescent inpatients. In G. M. Hanna (ed.). Celebrating our traditions, Charting our future: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference of the Association for Experiential Education. Boulder, CO: AEE.

Carpenter, B. (1995). Taking nature's cure: Do expensive wilderness therapy camps help or hurt troubled teens? U.S. News and World Report, 118(25), 54-58.

Crisp, S. (1998). International models of best practice in wilderness and adventure therapy. In C. Itin (Ed.). Exploring the boundaries of adventure therapy: International perspectives (pp. *). Boulder, CO: Association for Experiential Education.

Crocker, J., & Wroblewski, M. (1972). Using recreation games in counseling. Personnel and Guidance Journal, *, 453-458.

Cumes, D. (1998). Nature as medicine: The healing power of the wilderness. Alternative Therapies, 4, 79-86.

Fletcher, T.B. & Hinkle, J.S. (2002). Adventure based counseling: An innovation in counseling. Journal of Counseling & Development, 80(3), 277-284.

Gass, M.A. (1991). Enhancing metaphor development in adventure-based therapy programs. Journal of Experiential Education, 14 (2), 8-13.

Gass, M. A. & Gillis, H. L., (1995). Changes: An assessment model using adventure experiences. Journal of Experiential Education, 18(1), 34-40.

Gass, M. A., & McPhee, P. J. (1990). Emerging for recovery: A descriptive analysis of adventure-based therapy for substance abusers. Journal of Experiential Education, 13(2), 29-35.

Gilliam, N. (1993). What happens when the ropes courses move from the woods to psychiatric treatment facilities? In M. A. Gass (Ed) Adventure therapy: Therapeutic applications of adventure programming in mental health settings (pp. *). Boulder, CO: Association for Experiential Education.

Gillis, H. L. (1995). If I conduct outdoor pursuits with clinical populations, am I an adventure therapist? Leisurability, 22(4), 5-15.

Gillis, H. L. (1997). Current needs of adventure therapy. From Gillis, H. L (1998).  The journey in Oz: From activity-based psychotherapy to adventure therapy.  In C. M. Itin (Ed) Exploring the Boundaries of Adventure Therapy International Perspectives: Proceedings of the 1st International Adventure Therapy Conference, Perth Australia.

Gillis, H. L., & Bonney, W. C. (1986). Group counseling with couples or families: Adding adventure activities. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 11(4), 213-220.

Gillis, H. L., & McLeod, J. (October, 1992). Successful indoor adventure activities for treating substance abuse with adjudicated adolescents and incarcerated adults. Proceedings of the 20th International Conference of the Association for Experiential Education (pp *).

Gillis, H. L., & Priest, S (2003). Adventure therapy past, present, and future.  In K. Richards & B. Smith (eds.) (2003) Therapy within adventure (pp. *), Augsburg: Ziel.

Gillis, H. L., & Simpson, C. (1992). Project Choices: Adventure-based residential drug treatment for court referred youth. Journal of Addictions and Offender Counseling, 12, 12-27.

Gillis, H. L., Simpson, C., (1994) Working with substance abusing adolescents through Project Adventure. Addictions Looseleaf Notebook. Aspen: CO: Love.

Grant, F. (2003).  Therapeutic applications of adventure activities.  Horizons, 22, *.

Greenway, R. (1995). The wilderness effect and ecopsychology. In T. Roszak, T., M. Gomes, & A. Kanner (Eds.) Ecopsychology: Restoring the earth, healing the mind (pp. 122-135). San Francisco: Sierra Club.

Handley, R. (1994). Out of the bush - into the wilderness: Tension and change. A paper presented to the 6th Annual Conference on Children with Emotional or Behavioural Problems, Adelaide, SA, September.

Hatala, E. (1992) Experiential learning and therapy. In G. Hanna (Ed) Celebrating our tradition, charting our future: Proceedings of the International Conference of the Association for Experiential Education (pp. *). Alberta, Canada.

Harris, P. M., Mealy, L., Matthews, H., Lucas, R., & Mcozygemba, M. (1993). A wilderness challenge program as correctional treatment. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 19, 149-164.

Herbert, J. T. (1996). Use of adventure based counseling programs for persons with disabilities. Journal of Rehabilitation, 62(4), 3-9.

Itin, C. (n. d.). The impelling principle in challenge by choice.

Itin, C. (2003).  Adventure therapy vs. therapeutic adventure: Critical differences and appropriate training.  In K. Richards, & B. Smith (eds.) (2003). Therapy within adventure (pp. *), Augsburg: Ziel.

Jerstad, L. & Stelzer, J. (1973). Adventure experiences as a treatment for residential mental patients. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 7, 8-11.

Johnson, J. (1992). Adventure in therapy: The ropes-wilderness connection. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 26(3), 17-24.

Keith, B. (1978). Adult ex-psychiatric patient survival camping. Journal of Leisurability, 5(4), 3-7.

Kessell, M. J. (1994). Women's adventure group: Experiential therapy in an HMO setting. Special Issue: Wilderness therapy for Women: the Power of Adventure. Women and Therapy, 15(3-4), 185-203.

Kimball, R. (1983). The wilderness as therapy. Journal of Experiential Education, 5(3), 6-9.

Kimball, R. & Bacon, S. (1993). The wilderness challenge model. In M. Gass (Eds.), Adventure Therapy: Therapeutic applications of adventure-based therapy programming (pp. *). Dubuque, IA : Kendall/Hunt.

Kirkpatrick, T. (1983). Outward Bound as adjunct to family therapy in the treatment of alcoholism. Greenwich, CT: Outward Bound.

Kjol, R., & Weber, J. (1990). The 4th fire: Adventure-based counseling with juvenile sex offenders. Journal of Experiential Education, 13(3), 18-22.

Levine, D. (1994). Breaking through barriers: Wilderness therapy for sexual assault survivors. Special Issue: Wilderness therapy for Women: the Power of Adventure. Women and Therapy, 15(3-4), 185-203.

Luckner, J. (1988a). Outdoor-adventure and the hearing-impaired. Considerations for program development. Palaestra: The Forum of sport, Physical Education and Recreation for the Disabled, 4(4), 40-43, 51.

Luckner, J. (1988b). Expanding personal limits: Outward Bound and the hearing-impaired. The Volta Review, 90(4), 233-235.

Luckner, J. L., & Humphries, S. (1992). Using the outdoors as a learning laboratory. The Association of Canadian Educators of the Hearing-Impaired Journal,18(1), 30-34.

Mason, M. (1987). Wilderness family therapy: Experiential dimensions. Contemporary Family Therapy, 9, 90-105.

McGuire, R. & Priest, S. (1994). The treatment of bulimia nervosa through adventure-based therapy. The Journal of Experiential Education, 17(2), 44-48.

Nadler, R. (1993). Therapeutic process of change.  In M. Gass (Ed.) (1993).  Adventure therapy: Therapeutic applications of adventure programming (pp. *).  Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt.

Neill, J. T. (2004) Adventure therapy definitions.

Priest, S., & Gass, M. (2005). Effective leadership in adventure programming (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Pryor, A., Carpenter, C., & Townsend, M. (2005). Outdoor education and bush adventure therapy: A socio-ecological approach to health and wellbeing. Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, 9(1), 3-13.

Reed, C. (2003) Practice discussion: Fancy a career doing therapy in the outdoors? Horizons, 21, *.

Richards, K. (2003) Adventure Therapy: Exploring the Healing Potential of the Outdoors, in Horizons, Institute for Outdoor Learning, 21 Spring 2003.

Ringer, T. M. (1994). Adventure therapy: a map of the field. In J. Barrett (Ed.), Enabling troubled youth (pp. 155-159). Ambleside, UK: Basecamp.

Roland, C., Keene, T., Dubois, M., & Lentini, J. (1988). Experiential challenge program development in a mental health setting. The Bradford Papers Annual, Vol III. Martinsville, IN: Bradford Woods Outdoor Center. [.doc]

Rudolph, S., & Luckner, J. (1986). Outward Bound and the disabled: A personalized perspective. Palaestra: The Forum of Sport, Physical Education and Recreation for the Disabled, 3(1), 47-50.

Russell, K. C. (2001). What is wilderness therapy?. Journal of Experiential Education, 24(2), 70-79.

Russell, K. C. (2000). Exploring how the wilderness therapy process relates to outcomes. Journal of Experiential Education, 23(3), 170-176.

Russell, K. C., Hendee, J. C., & Phillips-Miller, D. (1999). How wilderness therapy works: An examination of the wilderness therapy process to treat adolescents with behavioural problems and addictions. In D. N. Cole, & S. F. McCool (Eds.) (2000). Wilderness science in a time of change (pp. 207-217). Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.

Russell, K., & Phillips-Miller, D. (2002). Perspectives on the wilderness therapy process and its relation to outcome. Child and Youth Care Forum, 31, 415-437.

Shank, J. (1975). Therapeutic recreation through contrived stress. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 9, 21-25.

Stich, T. F. (1983). Experiential therapy. Journal of Experiential Education, 5(3), 23-30.

Voight, A., McCormick, B. & Ewert, A. (2003) Therapeutic outdoor programming: Theoretical connections between adventure and therapy. In Richards, K. & Smith, B. (eds.) (2003) Therapy Within Adventure, Augsburg: Ziel.

Wilson, J. P., Walker, A. J., & Webster, B. (1989). Reconnecting stress recovery in the wilderness. In J. Wilson (Ed.). Trauma, transformation, and healing (pp. *). New York: Brunner-mazel.

Adventure Therapy Research & Evaluation

Arnold, S. C. (1994) Transforming women's body image through women's wilderness experience. Women and Therapy, 15(3/4), 43-54.

Banaka, W. H., & Young, D. W. (1985). Community coping skills enhanced by an adventure camp for adult chronic psychiatric patients. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 36(7), 746-748.

Barcus, C., & Bergeson, R. (1972). Survival training and mental health: A review. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 6(1), *.

Bennett, L.W., Cardone, S., & Jarczyk, J. (1997). Effects of a therapeutic camping program in addiction recovery. Journal of Experiential Education, 20(4), 377-389.

Berman, D. S., & Anton, M. T. (1988). A wilderness therapy program as an alternative to adolescent psychiatric hospitalization. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 5(3), 41-53.

Burney, J. (1992). Learning the ropes of problem solving and self control: A study of an experiential ropes program for special education students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Union Institute, Cincinnati, OH.

Cason, D., & Gillis, H. L. (1994). A meta-analysis of outdoor adventure programming with adolescents. The Journal of Experiential Education, 17(1), 40-47.

Chakravorty, D., Trunnell, E. P., & Ellis, G. D. (1995). Ropes course participation and post-activity processing on transient depressed mood of hospitalized adult psychiatric patients. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 29(2), 104-113.

Davidson, L. (2001) Qualitative research and making meaning from adventure: A case study of boys' experiences of outdoor education at school.  Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 1(2), 11-20.

Davis-Berman, J., Berman, D., & Capone, L. (1994). Therapeutic wilderness programs: A national survey. Journal of Experiential Education, 17(2), 49-52.

Dickens, J., C. (1999). Behavioral indicators of conduct disorder in a ropes course initiative. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Union Institute, Cincinnati, OH.

Harper, N., Russell, K., Cooley, R., & Cupples, J. (2007, June). Catherine Freer Wilderness Therapy Expeditions: An exploratory case study of adolescent wilderness therapy, family functioning, and the maintenance of change. Child & Youth Care Forum, 36(2/3), 111-129.

Gibson, P. M. (1979). Therapeutic effects of wilderness programs: A comprehensive literature review. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 13, 21-33.

Gillis, H. L. (1992). Therapeutic uses of adventure-challenge-outdoor-wilderness: Theory and research. Paper presented to the Coalition for Education in the Outdoors Symposium, Bradford Woods, Indiana University, Martinsville, IN.

Gillis, H. L. (2000, March). Going around in circles: Research and program evaluation in therapeutic adventure and adventure therapy. Paper presented to the Second International Adventure Therapy Conference, Augsburg, Germany.

Gillis, H. L., Simpson, C. A., Thomsen, D. D., & Martin, B. A. (1995). Final evaluation of project adventure's co-op program for court referred, drug involved youth.

Gillis, H. L., & Thomsen, D. (1996). A research update (1992-1995) of adventure therapy: Challenge activities and ropes courses, wilderness expeditions, and residential camping. Paper resented to the Coalition for Education in the Outdoors Symposium, Bradford Woods, Indiana University, Martinsville, IN.

Hans, T. (1997). A meta-analysis of the effects of adventure programming on locus of control. Unpublished masters thesis, Georgia College, Milledgeville, line">GA.

Hans, T. (2000).  A meta-analysis of the effects of adventure programming on locus of controlJournal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 30(1),33-60.

Hattie, J. Marsh, H. W., Neill, J. T., & Richards, G. E. (1997) Adventure education and Outward Bound: Out-of-class experiences that make a lasting difference.  Review of Educational Research, 67, 43-87.

Herbert, J. T. (1998). Therapeutic effects of participating in an adventure-based therapy program. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 41(3), 201-216.

Kelley, M. P. (1993). The therapeutic potential of outdoor adventure: A review, with a focus on adults with mental illness. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 27(2), 110-125.

Kelley, M. P., Coursey, R. D., & Selby, P. M. (1997). Therapeutic adventures outdoors: A Demonstration of benefits for people with mental illness. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 20(4), 61-73.

Lieberman, M. & DeVos, E. (1982). Adventure-based counseling: Final evaluation report. Unpublished manuscript.

Luckner, J. (1985). Outdoor-adventure education and the hearing impaired: An investigation of the effects on self-concept and locus of control. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46, 4307A. (University Microfilms No. 85-19441).

Luckner, J. (1988). Outdoor-adventure education as an ancillary component in rehabilitation programs for the hearing-impaired: A pilot study. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 289 270).

Luckner, J. (1989). Altering locus of control of individuals with hearing impairments by outdoor-adventure courses. Journal of Rehabilitation, 55(2), 62-67.

Luckner, J. (1989). The effects of participation on an outdoor-adventure education course on the self-concept of hearing-impaired individuals. American Annals of the Deaf, 134(1), 45-49.

Maizell, R. S. (1988). Adventure-based counseling as a therapeutic intervention with court-involved adolescents. Dissertation Abstracts International, 50/06-B, 2628.

Moore, T., & Russell, K. C. (2002).  Studies of the use of wilderness for personal growth, therapy, education and leadership development:  An annotation and evaluation. University of Idaho-Wilderness Research Center, Moscow, ID.

Neill, J. T. (2003). Reviewing and benchmarking adventure therapy outcomes: Applications of meta-analysis. Journal of Experiential Education, 25(3), 316-321.

Newes, S. (2001a). Adventure-based therapy: Theory, characteristics, ethics, and research.  Comprehensive exam answers.

Newes, S. (2001b). Predicting recidivism among juvenile offenders participating in an adventure-based therapy intervention.  Doctoral dissertation.

Newes, S. (2001c). The application of empirically-supported treatment criteria to adventure-based therapy research: Where do we stand and why should we care?  Outdoor Education Research & Evaluation Center.

Newes, S. (2001d). Future directions in adventure-based therapy research: Methodological considerations and design suggestions.  Outdoor Education Research & Evaluation Center.

Nurenberg, S. J. G. (1986). Psychological development of borderline adolescents in wilderness therapy. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46, 3488A.

Plakun E. M., Tucker, G. J., & Harris, P. Q. (1981). Outward Bound: An adjunctive psychiatric therapy. Journal of Psychiatric Treatment Evaluation, 3, 33-37.

Riley, M. F., & Hendee, J. C. (2000). Wilderness Vision Quest clients, motivations and reported benefits from an urban based program 1988-1997.  In Watson, A., Aplet, G. & Hendee, J. (Eds.) Personal, Societal, and Ecological Values of Wilderness: 6th World Wilderness Congress Proceedings on Research, Management and Allocation Volume II. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.

Russell, K. C. (2001).  Assessment of treatment outcomes in Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare.  Technical Report 27, Idaho Forest, Wildlife, and Range Experiment Station, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID.

Russell, K. C. (2002).  A longitudinal assessment of treatment outcomes in Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare. Technical Report 28, Idaho Forest, Wildlife, and Range Experiment Station, Moscow, ID.

Russell, K. C. & Hendee, J. C. (2000). Outdoor behavioral healthcare: Definitions, common practice, expected outcomes, and a nationwide survey of programs. Technical Report 26, Idaho Forest, Wildlife, and Range Experiment Station, Moscow ID. Technical Report 28, Idaho Forest, Wildlife, and Range Experiment Station, Moscow, ID.

Russell, K. C, Hendee, J. C., & Cooke, S. (1998). Social and economic benefits of a U.S. Wilderness Experience Program for Youth-at-Risk in the Federal Job Corps. International Journal of Wilderness, 4(3) 32-38.

Shasby, G., Heuchert, C., & Gansneder, B. (1984). The effects of a structured camp experience on locus of control and self-concept of special populations. Therapeutic Recreation, 18, 32-40.

Voight, A. (1988). The use of ropes courses as a treatment modality for emotionally disturbed adolescents in hospitals. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, (2), 57-64.

Walshe-Burke, K. (2002). Experiential education and oncology: Applications for professionals and clients. Illness, Crisis & Loss, 10, 52-62.

Witman, J. P. (1987). The efficacy of adventure programming in the development of cooperation and trust with adolescents in treatment. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 21(3), 22-30.

Witman, J. P., & Presenkis, K. (1996). Adventure programming with an individual who has multiple personality disorder: A case history. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 30(4), 289-296.

Ziven, Hilary S. (1988). The effects of the challenge group treatment program on psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology, MA.

Delinquency, Incarcerated Youth, & Youth at Risk

Bacon, S. (1988). Outward Bound and troubled youth. Greenwich, CT: Outward Bound USA.

Bandoroff, S. (1989).Wilderness therapy for delinquent and pre-delinquent youth: A review of the literature. (ERIC ED377428): University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC.

Bannister,W., Gass, M., & McMillan, K. (1998). Therapeutic [Activities]: Letting go, moving on.  Zip Lines: The Voice for Adventure Education, 36,49-56. ERIC Document No.: EJ593761

Baucom, L., Gillis, L., Durden, J., Bloom, S., & Thomsen, D. (1996). A brief report on project adventure's project challenge: An alternative to juvenile incarceration funded by the state of Georgia division of children and youth services. Hamilton, MA: Project Adventure.

Berman, D. S., & Davis-Berman, J. (1995). Outdoor education and troubled youth. ERIC Digest ED385425.

Blanchard, C. W. (1992). Experiential therapy with troubled youth: The ropes course for adolescent impatient. In G. M. Hanna (Ed.), Celebrating our tradition, charting our future: Proceedings for the International Conference of the Association of Experiential Education. Banff: Alberta, Canada.

Blanchard, C. W. (1993). Effects of ropes course therapy on interpersonal behavior and self esteem of adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New Mexico State University, NM.

Castellano, T. C., & Soderstrom, I. R. (1992). Therapeutic wilderness programs and juvenile recidivism: A program evaluation. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 17(3/4), 19-46.

Colmant, S. A., & Merta, R. J. (1999). Using the sweat lodge ceremony as group therapy for Navajo youth.  Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 24(1), 55-73.

Colmant, S. A., & Merta, R. J. (2000).  Sweat therapy.  Journal of Experiential Education, 23 (1), 31-38.

Connor, M. G. (2000). The undiscovered hero: The journey of wilderness therapy.

Gaston, D. K. (1978). An evaluation of the Connecticut Wilderness School: A wilderness challenge program for pre-delinquent and delinquent teenagers. Doctoral dissertation, University of Connecticut, 1978. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40, 914B.

Golins, G. (1978). How delinquents succeed through adventure-based education. The Journal of Experiential Education, 1(1), 26-29.

Golins, G. (1979). Utilizing adventure education to rehabilitate juvenile delinquents. Denver, CO: Colorado Outward Bound.

Elrod, H. P., & Minor, K. I. (1992). Second wave evaluation of a multi-faceted intervention for juvenile court probationers. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 36(3), 247-263.

Holmes, P. (1996). The Outdoor Experience, (TOE) program, Kids on Top II Expedition: The LEQ research findings and summary. Paper presented to the 7th International Conference on the Reduction of Drug Related Harm, May, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

Holmes, P. (1997). Kids on Top II. http://www.outdoorcouncil.asn.au/13.html/pastissues.html">Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, 2(3), *.

Kelley, F. J. & Baer, D. J. (1971). Physical challenge as a treatment for delinquency. Crime and Delinquency, 17, 437-445.

Langsner, S. J., & Anderson, S. C. (1987). Outdoor challenge education and self-esteem and locus of control of children with behavior disorders. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 4, 237-246.

Matthews, M. (1991). Wilderness programs offer promising alternatives for some youth: More regulation likely. Youth Law News, 12 (6), 12-15.

McReady, K. (1997). At-risk youth and leisure: An ecological perspective. Journal of Leisurability, 24 (2).

Minor, K. I. & Elrod, H. P. (1990). The effects of a multifaceted intervention on the offence activities of juvenile probationers. Journal of Offender Counseling and Rehabilitation, 15(2), 87-108.

Minor, K. I. & Elrod, H. P. (1994). The effects of a probation intervention on juvenile offenders' self-concepts, loci of control, and perceptions of juvenile justice. Youth and Society, 25(4), 490-511.

Newbarry, E. H., & Lindsay, J. F. (2000). The impact of social skills training and challenge course training on locus of control of youth from residential care. Journal of Experiential Education, 23(1), 39-42.

Parker, M. W. (1992). Impact of adventure interventions of traditional counseling interventions (ropes course). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma.

Reid, W. H., & Mathews, W. M. (1980). A wilderness experience treatment program for antisocial offenders. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Rehabilitative Criminology, 24, 171-178.

Russell, K. C. (1999). The theoretical basis, process, and reported outcomes of wilderness therapy as an intervention and treatment for problem behavior in adolescents. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, College of Natural Resources, Moscow, ID.

Russell, K. C. (2001).  Assessment of treatment outcomes in Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare.  Technical Report 27, Idaho Forest, Wildlife, and Range Experiment Station, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID.

Russell, K. C. & Hendee, J.C.  (2000). Outdoor behavioral healthcare:  Definitions, common practice, expected outcomes, and a nationwide survey of programs. University of Idaho, Moscow, ID.

Russell, K. C., & Hendee, J. C. (2000). Wilderness therapy as an intervention and treatment for adolescents with behavioral problems. In Watson, A., Aplet, G. & Hendee, J. (Eds.) Personal, Societal, and Ecological Values of Wilderness: 6th World Wilderness Congress Proceedings on Research, Management and Allocation Volume II. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.

Russell, K. C, Hendee, J. C., & Cooke, S. (1998). Social and economic benefits of a U.S. Wilderness Experience Program for Youth-at-Risk in the Federal Job Corps . International Journal of Wilderness, 4(3) 32-38.  

Russell, K., Hendee, J. C., & Hall, L. (1996). A wilderness discovery program for urban, youth-at-risk at the Atlanta Job Corps Center. Presentation to the Wilderness Areas in the East Conference, Gatlinburg, Tennessee May 19-23, 1996.

Russell, K. C., Hendee, J. C., & Phillips-Miller, D. (2000). How wilderness therapy works: An examination of the wilderness therapy process to treat adolescents with behavioral problems and addictions.  In Cole, D., McCool, S. (Eds.) Proceedings: Wilderness Science in a Time of Change, Missoula, MT, May, 1999.  Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.

Sakofs, M. (1991). Assessing the impact of an Outward Bound program for adjudicated youth. Journal of Experiential Education, 14(2), 49-50.

Wichman, T. (1991). Of wilderness and circles: Evaluating a therapeutic model for wilderness programs. Journal of Experiential Education, 14(2), 43-48.

Willman, H. C., & Chun, R. Y. F. (1973). Homeward Bound: An alternative to the institutionalization of adjudicated juvenile offenders. Federal Probation, 37, 52-57.

Wilson, S. J., & Lipsey, M. W. (2000).  Wilderness challenge programs for delinquent youth: A meta-analysis of outcome evaluations.  Evaluation & Program Planning, 23, 1-12.

Witt, P. A., & Crompton, J. L. (1996). The at-risk youth recreation project.