Facilitation

Group Facilitation & Processing
in Experiential & Outdoor Education
References

James Neill
Last updated:
04 Mar 2011

Books & book chapters

Boud, D., Keogh, R., & Walker, D. (1985). Promoting reflection in learning: a model. In D. Walker (Ed.), Reflection: Turning experience into learning (pp. 18-40). London: Kogan Page.

Brackenreg, M., Luckner, J. & Pinch, K. (1994). Essential skills for processing adventure experiences. Journal of Experiential Education, 17(3), 45-47.

Chapman, S. (1995). What is the question? In K. Warren. (Ed.), The Theory of Experiential Education (3rd ed., pp. 236-239). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.

Gass, M. A. (1990). Transfer of learning in adventure education. In J. Miles & S. Priest (Ed.) (1999). Adventure programming education (pp. *). State College, PA: Venture.

Knapp, C. E. (1990). Processing the adventure experience. In J. Miles & S. Priest (Ed.) (1999). Adventure programming (pp. *). State College, PA: Venture Publishing.

Luckner, J. L., & Nadler, R. S. (1995). Processing adventure experiences: Its the story that counts. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 29(3), 175-183.

Luckner, J. & Nadler, R. (1997). Processing the experience: Strategies to enhance and generalize learning. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.

Nadler, R. S. (1993). Therapeutic process of change. In M. A. Gass (Ed.) Adventure therapy: Therapeutic applications of adventure programming (pp. 57-69). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt. [out of print]

Priest, S., & Gass, M. A. (2005). Effective leadership in adventure programming (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  • Chapter 14 - The process of facilitation

  • Chapter 15 - Basic facilitation techniques

  • Chapter 16 - Advanced facilitation techniques

  • Chapter 17 - Facilitation roles

Priest, S., Gass, M. A., & Gillis, L. (2000). The essential elements of facilitation. Tarrak.

Sugarman, D. A., Doherty, K. L., Garvey, D. E., & Gass, M. A. (2000). Reflective learning: Theory and practice. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.

Conference papers

Boud, D. (1997). Reflection as a catalyst for change. Paper presented at the 10th National Outdoor Education Conference, Sydney, Australia.

Dirkx, J. M., & Lavin, R. (1991).  Understanding and facilitating experience-based learning in adult education: The FOURthought model. Paper presented at the Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference, October 3-4, St. Paul, MN.

Estes, C. A., & Tomb, S. (1995). Is cheese food really food? a.k.a. Some conscious alternatives to overprocessing experience. Paper presented at the 1995 International Conference on Outdoor Recreation and Education (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 404 080).

Journal articles

Bowles, S. (1996). Techniques and philosophy. The Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 13(2), 7-19.

Brackenreg, M., Luckner, J. L., & Pinch, K. (1994). Essential skills for processing adventure experiences. Journal of Experiential Education, 17(3), 45-47.

Brown, M. (2002). The facilitator as gatekeeper: A critical analysis of social order in facilitation sessions. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 2(2), 101-112.

Dickson, T. J. (1996). Processing the experience-broadening the vision. Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, 2(2), 11-16.

Hovelynck J. (1998). Facilitating experiential learning as a process of metaphor development. Journal of Experiential Education, 21(1), 6-13.  [pdf]

Hovelynck J. (1999). Facilitating the development of generative metaphors: re-emphasizing participantsí guiding images. Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, 4(1), 12-24.

Hovelynck J. (2000). Recognising and exploring action-theories: a reflection-in-action approach to facilitating experiential learning. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 1(1), 7-20.  [pdf]

Hovelynck J. (2001). Practice-theories of facilitating experiential learning in Outward Bound: a research report. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 1(2), 53-57. [pdf]

Luckner, J. L. (1994). Effective skills instruction in outdoor adventure education. The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 65(1), 57 -61.

Luckner, J. & Nadler, R. (1995). Processing adventure experiences: It's the story that counts. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 29(3), 175-183. [Links goes to free abstract & citation; paid  full-text]

Priest, S., & Naismith, M. (1993). A model for debriefing experiences. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 10(3), 20-22.

Ringer, T. M. (1999). Two vital aspects in the facilitation of groups: Connections and containment. Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, 4(1), 5-11.  [pdf; .1 MB]

Ringer, M., & Gillis, H. L. (1995). Managing psychological depth in adventure programmingJournal of Experiential Education, 18(1), 41-51.  [pdf; 1.3 MB]

Quinsland, L. K., & Van Ginkel, A. (1984). How to process experience. Journal of Experiential Education, 7(2), 8-13.

Theses

Brown, M. (2002). Interaction and social order in adventure education facilitation sessions. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Queensland, Brisbane.

Web-based material

Greenaway, R. (2003). Facilitation & reviewing in outdoor education.  Active Reviewing.

Knapp, C. (1992). Lasting lessons: A teacher's guide to reflecting on experience. AEL: Charleston, WV.

Loynes, C., Bowles, S., Matur, A., & Ringer, M. (c. 2000). The generative paradigm and three responses.

McGowan, M. (1997). A more conscious use of metaphor in adventure education. The Bradford Papers, 7. [doc]

Neill, J. T. (2003). Instructor effectiveness in outdoor, adventure & other adventure-based experiential programs.

Priest, S. (n.d.) Corporate Adventure Training (CAT) program studies [includes several studies which examine different processing and facilitation methods].

The Outdoor Leaders Handbook: Activities, Information & Ideas (2002). Reviewing.

Wickes, S. (2000). The facilitators' stories: "What's it like to facilitate at your very best?" An inquiry into facilitators' peak experiences of facilitating at Brathay. [pdf]