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Adventure Education and Outward Bound:
Out-of-class Experiences that Make a Lasting Difference

James Neill


John Hattie
University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Herbert W. Marsh
University of Western Sydney
James T. Neill
Garry E. Richards
University of Western Sydney

Review of Educational Research, 67, 43-87

References [185]
(
References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the meta-analysis)

Abbott, C. (1989).  Does outdoor education really work? Perks, research and reality.  Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 4, 60-67.

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*Bacon, S. (1987). The career beginnings Outward Bound Component: An empirical evaluation.  Outward Bound USA: Greenwich, CT. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 295 780).

*Bacon, S. (1988). Outward Bound and Troubled Youth.  Greenwich, CT: Outward Bound, USA.

Bartley, N.L. (1989, November).  Outward Bound Leadership model: An exploratory study of leadership variables.  Proceedings of 1988 National Conference on Outdoor Recreation.  Fort Collins, Co.

*Bauer, F. (1982).  Papakura probation: Outdoor pursuits courses 1980: One year follow-up.  Justice Department, Auckland, New Zealand.

Bertolami, C. (1981).  Effects of a Wilderness Program on Self-esteem and locus of control orientations of young adults. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 266 928)

*Bronson, J., Gibson, S., Kichar, R., & Priest, S. (1992). Evaluation of team development in a corporate adventure training program.  The Journal of Experiential Education, 15, 50-53.

Brown, P.J., & Haas, G.E. (1980). Wilderness recreation experiences: The Rawah case.  Journal of Leisure Research, 12, 229-240.

Buell, L.H. (1981). The identification of Outdoor Adventure Leadership competencies for entry-level and experienced legal personnel. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts. (University Microfilms, No. 81-17975).

*Burdsal, C., & Force, R.C. (1983).  An examination of counselor ratings of behavior problem youth in an early stage, community-based intervention program.  Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 353-360.

*Campbell, W., Rily, D., & Easthope, T. (1981).  Recidivism following involvement in an Outdoor Expeditionary Project.  Probation Service, Justice Department, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Cason, D., & Gillis, H.L. (1994). A meta-analysis of outdoor adventure programming with adolescents.  The Journal of Experiential Education, 17, 40-47.

Castellano, T.C., & Soderstrom, I.R. (1992) Therapeutic wilderness programs and juvenile recidivism: A program evaluation.  Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 17, 19-46.

Counsineau, C. (1977). A Delphi consensus on the set of principles or the development of a certification system for educators in Outdoor Adventures.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Northern Colorado.

*Chenery, M.F. (1981).  Effects of summer camp on child development and contributions of counselors to those effects.  Journal of Leisure Research, 13, 195-206.

*Collingwood, T.R. (1972). Survival camping: A therapeutic mode for rehabilitating problem youths  (Technical Report). Little Rock: AK: Arkansas Rehabilitation and Research Training Center.

*Cytrynbaum, S., & Ken, K. (1975). The Connecticut wilderness programme: A preliminary evaluation report.  Hartford, CT.

Doyle, W.E. (1981).  An outdoor-challenge experience and the effective development of college students. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts, 1981).  Dissertation Abstracts International, 42, (3), A1022-1023.

*Drebing, C.E., Willis, S.C., & Genet, B. (1987).  Anxiety and the Outward Bound process.  Journal of Experiential Education, 10, 17-21.

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Ewert, A. (1991). Revisiting the self-concept: A new twist on an old subject.  The Journal of Experiential Education, 14, 49.

Ewert, A. (1982b).  The effect of course length on the reported self-concepts of selected Outward Bound Participants  (Doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon).  Dissertation Abstracts International, 43, A3111.

Ewert, A. (1983). Outdoor adventure and self-concept: A research analysis.  Eugene, OR: Center of Leisure Studies, University of Oregon.

Ewert, A. (1989). Outdoor adventure pursuits: foundations, models, and theories.  Columbus, Oh: Publishing Horizons.

Ewert, A., & Heywood, J. (1991). Group development in the natural environment: Expectations, outcomes and techniques. Environment and Behavior, 23, 592-615.

*Felstead, B. (1987). The outdoor experience program and adolescent offender self-concept.  Outward Bound Australia, Canberra.

Fletcher, B.A. (1970). Students of Outward Bound Schools in Great Britain: A follow-up study.  University of Bristol, School of Education.

Fletcher, B.A. (1971).  The challenge of Outward Bound.  London: William Heinemann.

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*Fry, S.K. (1993). Analysis of Australian Outward Bound standard program effects on positive and negative affect. Australian Outward Bound Foundation, Canberra.

*Gass, M.A. (1987). The effects of a wilderness orientation program on college students.  Journal of Experiential Education, 10(2), 30-33.

*Gass, M.A. (1990). The longitudinal effects of an adventure orientation program on the retention of students.  Journal of College Student Development, 31, 33-38.

*Gass, M.A., & McPhee, P.J. (1990). Emerging for recovery: Descriptive analysis of Adventure therapy for substance abusers.  Journal of Experiential Education, 13, 29-35.

*Gibson, P. (1979). Therapeutic aspects of wilderness programs: A comprehensive literature review.  Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 13, 21-33.

Gibson, P. (1981). The effects of and the correlates of success in a wilderness therapy program for problem youths (Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 1981). Dissertation Abstracts International, 42, A140.

Gillenson, A.J. (1983). Short term experiential Laboratories in academic courses.  (ERIC Reproduction Services No. ED 238 624)

*Gillett, D.P., Thomas, G.P., Skok, R.L., & McLaughlin, T.F. (1991).  The effects of wilderness camping and hiking on the self-concept and the environmental attitudes and knowledge of twelfth graders.  Journal of Environmental Education,  21, 33-44.

*Gillette, J.H. (1971). A study of attitude changes as a result of Outward Bound Maintain Ski skills, C-60.  (Doctoral dissertation, University of Northern Colorado). Dissertation Abstracts International,  32, A3785.

*Gillis, H.L. (1981).  The effects of camping/construction experience on the self-concepts, locus of control, and academic achievement of high school students.  Unpublished masterís thesis, Middle Tennessee State University.

Glass, G.V., McGaw, B., & Smith, M.L. (1981). Meta-analysis in social research.  Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Godfrey, R. (1974, April). A review of research and evaluation literature on Outward Bound and related Educational programs.  Paper presented at the Conference of Experiential Education, Estes Park, Colorado.

*Goldman, K., & Priest, S. (1991). Risk taking transfer in development training.  Adventure Education, 8, 58-59.

Golins, G. (1979). Utilizing adventure education to rehabilitate juvenile delinquents. Denver, CO: Colorado Outward Bound.

*Gouvernet, P.J. (1988). Motivation and self-regulation.  Unpublished masterís thesis, University of Sydney, Australia.

Green, P. (1982, March). The content of a college-level outdoor leadership course.  Paper presented at the Conference of the Northwest District Association for the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. Spokane, WA.

Gunter, B.G. (1987). The leisure experience: Selected properties.  Journal of Leisure Research, 19, 125-130.

Hahn, K. (1957). Outward Bound.  New York: World Books.

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Hattie, J.A. (1992a).  Towards a model of schooling: A synthesis of meta-analyses.  Australian Journal of Education, 36, 5-13.

Hattie, J.A. (1987). Identifying the salient facets of a model of student learning:  A synthesis of meta-analyses. International Journal of Educational Research, 11, 187-212.

Hattie, J.A. (1992). Self-concept.  Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Hattie, J.A. (1993). Measuring the effects of schooling. SET, 2, 1-4.

Hattie, J.A. & Marsh, H.W. (1996). Future research in self-concepts. In B. Bracken (Ed.), Handbook on Self-concept. (pp. 421-462). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

*Hazelworth, M.S. & Wilson, B.E. (1990). The effects of an outdoor adventure camp experience on self-concept.  Journal of Environmental Education, 21, 33-37.

Hedges, L.V., & Olkin, I. (1985).  Statistical methods for meta-analysis.  New York: Academic.

Hendee. J., & Roggenbuck, J. (1984, August ).  Wilderness-related education as a factor increasing demand for Wilderness.  Paper presented at the International Forest Congress Convention, Quebec City, Canada.

*Hendy, C.M. (1975). Outward Bound and personality: 16 PF profiles of instructors and ipsative changes in male and female students 16-19 years of age  (Doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon). Dissertation Abstracts International, 36, A4352.

*Hileman, M.A. (1979). An evaluation of an environmental stress challenge programme on social attitudes and recidivism behavior of male delinquent youth.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University.

Hogan, J.M. (1968). Impelled into experiences: The story of the Outward Bound schools. London: Educational Productions.

Huie, J.C. (1983). A semester Outward Bound course: An exploratory study of effects on locus of control, values, and life meanings. Dissertation Abstracts International, 44, A1372.

Humberstone, B. (1989). Macho or multifarious: The image and place of outdoor and adventure education in the school Curriculum,  British Journal of Physical Education, 20, 112-114.

Humberstone, B., & Lynch, P. (1991). Girls concepts of themselves and their experiences in Outdoor Education Programmes.  Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 8, 27-31.

Iida, M. (1975). Adventure oriented programs: A review or research.  In Research in Camping and Environmental Education (Penn State HPER Series, No. 11). Pennsylvania State University.

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Jernstedt, B.C., & Johnson, B.T. (1983).  The effects of long term experiential programs on their participation. Technical report, Dartmouth College, NH. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 238 625).

Jones, C.A. (1978). An evaluation of the effects of an Outward Bound Type of Program upon the self-concepts and academic achievement of high school students. (Doctoral dissertation, Boston University School of Education). Dissertation Abstracts International, 39, A2887.

*Kaplan, R. (1972). Some psychological benefits of an outdoor challenge program.  Environment and Behavior, 6, 1-15.

*Kaplan, R. (1984). Wilderness perception and psychological benefits: An analysis of a continuing program.  Leisure Sciences, 6, 271-290.

Kaplan, S., & Talbot, J. (1983).  Psychological benefits of a wilderness experience.  In I. Altman & J. Wohlwill (Eds.), Behavior and the Natural Environment (pp. 163-204). New York: Plenum.

*Kelly, F.J. (1974).  Outward Bound and Delinquents: A ten year experience.  Paper presented at Conference on Experiential Education, Estes Park, CO.

*Kelly, F.J., & Baer, D.J. (1968). Outward Bound schools as an alternative to institutionalization for adolescent delinquent boys.  Boston, MA:  Outward Bound, Inc.

*Kelly, F.J., & Baer, D.J.  (1969).  Jesness Inventory and self-concept means for delinquents before and after participation in Outward Bound.  Psychological Reports, 25, 719-238.

*Kelly, F.J., & Baer, D.J. (1971).  Physical challenge as a treatment for delinquency.  Crime and delinquency, 17, 437-443.

*Kimball, R.O. (1979). Wilderness experience program: Final Evaluation Report.  Behavioral Health Services Division: Health and Environment Department, New Mexico.

Krane, D., Hattie, J.A., & Houghton, S. (in press). Goal setting and the Adventure experience. Australian Journal of Psychology.

Leiweke, J.T. (1976). The influence of the twenty-four day Outward Bound experience on self-actualization.  (Doctoral dissertation, Saint Louis University). Dissertation Abstracts International, 37, 3523A.

Lewicki, R.J. (1977).  Outward Bound and sensitivity training: Experiential learning in the wild.  The Amos Tuck School of Business Administration, Dartmouth College: NH.

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*MacKay, B.J. (1981). The evaluation of outcomes of resident outdoor education: a study of selected Christchurch schools.  Unpublished masterís of science thesis, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Marsh, H.W. (1992). Self Description Questionnaire (SDQ) III: A theoretical and empirical basis for the measurement of multiple dimensions of late adolescent self-concept;  A test manual and a research monograph.  Publication Unit, Faculty of Education, University of Western Sydney, Macarthur, NSW, Australia.

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Marsh, H.W., Byrne, B.M., & Shavelson, R.J. A multidimensional, hierarchical self-concept research.  In R.P., Lipka & T.M. Brinthaupt (Eds.), Studying the self: Perspectives across the life span. (pp. 44-95). New York: Teachers College Press.

Marsh, H.W., & Hattie, J.A. (1996).  Theoretical models in self-concept. In B. Bracken (Ed.), Handbook on Self-concept. (pp. 38-90). Erlbaum, NJ.

Marsh, H.W., & Peart, N.D. (1988). Competitive and cooperative physical fitness training programs for girls: Effects on fitness and on multidimensional self-concepts.  Journal of Sports Psychology, 10, 390-407.

*Marsh, H.W., & Richards, G.E. (1986). The Rotter Locus of control scale: The comparison of alternative response formats and implications for reliability, validity, and dimensionality. Journal of Research in Personality, 20, 509-528.

*Marsh, H.W., & Richards, G.E. (1987).  The multidimensionality of the Rotter I-E scale and its higher-order structure: An application of confirmatory factor analysis.  Multivariate Behavioral Research, 22, 3-69.

*Marsh, H.W., & Richards, G.E. (1988). The Outward Bound bridging course for low-achieving high school males: Effect on academic achievement and multidimensional self-concepts.  Australian Journal of Psychology, 40, 281-298.

Marsh, H.W., & Richards, G.E. (1989). A test of bipolar and androgyny perspectives of masculinity and femininity: The effect of participation in an Outward Bound Program.  Journal of Personality, 57, 115-138.

*Marsh, H.W., & Richards, G.E. (1990). Self-other agreement and self-other differences on multidimensional self-concept ratings.  Australian Journal of Psychology, 42, 31-45.

*Marsh, H.W., Richards, G.E., & Barnes, J. (1986a). Multidimensional self-concepts: The effect of participation in an Outward Bound Program.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 195-204.

*Marsh, H.W., Richards, G.E., & Barnes, J. (1986b).  Multidimensional self-concepts: A long term follow-up of the effect of participation in an Outward Bound program.  Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 12, 475-492.

Marsh, H.W., Richards, G.E., Johnson, S., Roche, L., & Tremayne, P. (1994). Physical Self-Description Questionnaire: Psychometric properties and a multitrait-multimethod analysis of relations to existing instruments.  Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 16, 270-305.

*Mason-Cox, S. (1992). Locus of control and management training programmes.  Unpublished bachelorís thesis, University of Technology, Sydney.

Matthai, R.A. (1973). The effect of Outward Bound on sense of competence. (Doctoral dissertation, Harvard University).  Dissertation Abstracts International, 34, A7050.

McCormick, I.A., Taylor, A.J., Rivolier, J., & Cazes, G. (1985). A psychometric study of stress and coping during the International Biomedical Expedition to the Antarctic (IBEA). Journal of Human Stress, 11, 150-156.

McIntyre, M.(1988).  Self-concept change as a result of an extended Outdoor Education Residential experience.  Canberra College of Advanced Education, Canberra, Australia.

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Miner, J., & Boldt, J. (1981). Outward Bound USA: Learning through experience in Adventure-based education.  New York: William Morrow.

*Mitchell, H.A., & Mitchell, M.J. (1988). A study of aspects of self-concept over a two-year period: Possible effects of an intervening Outward Bound Course.  Nelson, New Zealand: Mitchell Research.

Neill, J.T. (1994). The effect of Outward Bound high school programs on adolescentsí self-concept, mental health, and coping strategies.  Unpublished honours thesis, Australian National University, Canberra.

*Neill, J.T. & Richards, G.E. (1994). An analysis of a series of sail training voyages. Canberra: Australia.  National Outdoor Education and Leadership Services.

*Neill, J.T. & Richards, G.E. (1994). Results of the new Australian Outward Bound Challenge courses. Canberra: Australian Outward Bound Foundation.

*Neill, J.T. & Richards, G.E. (1991a). An introduction to the Life Effectiveness Questionnaire (LEQ-G). Canberra: Australian Outward Bound Foundation.

*Neill, J.T. & Richards, G.E. (1991b). A preliminary analysis of an Outward Bound management program. Canberra: Australian Outward Bound Foundation.

*Neill, J.T. & Richards, G.E. (1991c). Preliminary results o the 4th Australian Outward Bound Challenge course. Canberra: Australian Outward Bound Foundation.

*Neill, J.T., Richards, G.E., & Black, F.H. (1988). Results of the new Australian Outward Bound Challenge Course. Canberra: Australian Outward Bound Foundation.

Nold, J. (1976). Growth and crises in a developing organization.  Denver: CO: Outward Bound School.

*Nussbaumer, I.R. (1988). Physical self-concept and outdoor education.  Unpublished Masterís of Education dissertation, University of Western Australia, Perth.

Nye, R. (1976). The influence of an Outward Bound Program on the self-concept of the participants.  Temple University.  Dissertation Abstracts International, 46(11), 142A.

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*Owens, L., & Richards, G.E. (1979). A study of the personal development outcomes of Outward Bound Australian standard courses. Australian Outward Bound Foundation, Canberra.

Parkhurst, M.J. (1983). A study of the perceived influence of a Minnesota Outward Bound course on the lives of selected women graduates.  (Doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon).  Dissertation Abstracts International, 44, 3491A.

*Parle, M.D. (1986). The role of self-efficacy in Outward Bound: An investigation of a high school course.  Unpublished bachelorís Honours dissertation, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia.

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*Porter, W. (1975). The development and evaluation of a therapeutic wilderness program for problem youth.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Denver.

Powers, K.R. (1983). The effects of physical challenge training on self-concept and locus of control.  (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA).  Dissertation Abstracts International, 44, A2364.

Priest, S. (1993).A new model for risk taking. Journal of Experiential Education, 16, 50-53.

Priest, S., & Gass, M. (1990). Five generations of facilitate learning from Adventure Experiences.  Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Education.

Rawson, M. (1973). Residential short-term camping for children with behavior problems: A behavior modification approach.  Child Welfare, 52, 511-520.

Rhoades, J.S. (1972). The problem of individual change in Outward Bound: An application of change and transfer theory.  (Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts). Dissertation Abstracts International, 33, A4922.

Richards, G.E. (1975). Leadership and Outward Bound: A public view of Outward Bound Leadership Training. Canberra: Australia.  National Outdoor Education and Leadership Services.

Richards, G. E. (1976).  Some psychological bases and aspects of Outward Bound. Canberra: Australia.  National Outdoor Education and Leadership Services.

Richards, G. E. (1977). Some educational implications and contributions of Outward Bound. Canberra: Australia.  National Outdoor Education and Leadership Services.

Richards, G. E. (1979).  Outward Bound and the education of mental handicapped people. Canberra: Australia.  National Outdoor Education and Leadership Services.

Richards, G.E. (1987, January).  Outdoor education in Australia in relation to the Norman Conquest, a Greek Olive grove and the external perspective of a Horseís mouth.  Paper presented at the 5th National Outdoor Education Conference, Perth, WA.

*Richards, G.E. (1990). Results of an Australian Outward Bound Management program for young sales executives.  Australian Outward Bound Foundation, Canberra.

Richards, G.E. (1996). Inspirational readings in outdoor education programs: Do they work or not? Canberra, Australia: National Outdoor Education and Leadership Services.

*Richards, G.E., Barrett, J., & Brown, H. (1990). A research evaluation of developmental outcomes of Outward Bound Australiaís Middle management development programs for Melbourne Water. Australian Outward Bound Foundation, Canberra.

*Richards, G.E., Barrett, J.D., Medhurst, T.G., & Smith, G.A. (1991).  A research evaluation of the developmental outcomes of the Outward Bound Management Training and corporate development program with the Regent Hotel of Sydney.  Australian Outward Bound Foundation, Canberra.

*Richards, G.E., Barrett, J. D.,  Morrison, B., & Seidel, J. (1992).  A research evaluation of the developmental outcomes of the Outward Bound Australia/NCR sales professional development programs 1989-1991. Australian Outward Bound Foundation, Canberra.

*Richards, G.E., Barrett, J.D., Neill, J.T., & Seidel, J.A. (1992). A research evaluation of the developmental outcomes of Young Endeavourís ten day sail training voyages. Australian Outward Bound Foundation, Canberra.

*Richards, G.E., Lee, S.A., & Barrett, J.D. (1993). Outward Bound NCR sales professional development program.  Australian Outward Bound Foundation, Canberra.

*Richards, G.E., & Neill, J.T. (1993a). Analysis of outcomes of Australian Outward  Bound Management training and corporate development programs using the LEQ-F. Australian Outward Bound Foundation, Canberra.

*Richards, G.E., & Neill, J.T. (1993b). Analysis of outcomes of a 26-day standard Australian Outward Bound Program . Australian Outward Bound Foundation, Canberra.

*Richards, G.E., & Neill, J.T. (1993c). Analysis of outcomes of the experimental 26-day standard Australian Outward Bound Program . Australian Outward Bound Foundation, Canberra.

Richards, G.E., & Neill, J.T. (1996). Use of effect-sizes for ongoing development of Outward Bound programs. Australian Outward Bound Foundation, Canberra.

*Richards, G.E., Neill, J.T., & Black, F.H. (1993).  Effectiveness of a revised experimental model of the Australian Outward Bound standard course. Australian Outward Bound Foundation, Canberra.

*Richards, G.E., & Richards, M.J.F. (1981). Australian Outward Bound bridging course 1981: An investigation and evaluation of an Outward Bound remedial program. Australian Outward Bound Foundation, Canberra

*Richards, G.E., van Gelder, J., & Neill, J.T. (1993). Physical fitness changes on an Australian Outward Bound standard course. Australian Outward Bound Foundation, Canberra.

*Richards, G.E., van Gelder, J., & Neill, J.T. (1994). Locus of control changes on an Outward Bound standard course. Australian Outward Bound Foundation, Canberra.

Riggins, R.D. (1985). The Colorado Outward Bound School: Biographical and personality factors contributing to the Leadership Effectiveness of Instructors.  Journal of Environmental Education, 16, 6-11.

*Ringer, M. (1994, April). Northland Support Wilderness Experience. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 378 024)

Risk, P.H. (1976).  The influence of Outward Bound school experience on the self-concept, personality, and values.  (Doctoral Dissertation, Michigan Sate University). Dissertation Abstracts International, 37, B6307.

*Roland, C.C. (1981).  The transfer of an Outdoor managerial training program to the work place.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Boston University. 

Rossman, B., & Ulehla, J. (1977). Psychological Reward Values Associated With Wilderness Use: A functional Reinforcement Approach.  Environment and Behavior, 9, 41-66.

Royce, D. (1987). Adventure experience and affective learning: Where are we going?  Journal of Adventure Education, 4, 12-14

*Sachs, J.J., & Miller, S.R. (1992).  The impact of a wilderness experience on the social interactions and social expectations of behaviorally disordered adolescents.  Behavioral Disorders, 17, 89-98.

*Sakofs, M. (1992). Assessing the impact of the wilderness alternative for youth programme: An outward bound programme for adjudicated youth.  The Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 9, 16-21.

*Sakofs, M., & Schurman, D. (1991). Assessing the impact of the Wilderness Alternative for Youth: An Outward Bound program for adjudicated youth.  Corbam Resources, Greenwich, CN.  (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 339 556)

Scherl, L.A. (1982).  Participants, their perceptions, expectations and reactions towards an Outward Bound Adult program: A preliminary study.  Unpublished manuscript prepared at the Department of Behavioural Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia.

Scherl, L.A. (1986, May).  Self in wilderness: Is personal control a viable notion for understanding individual-wilderness interaction.  Paper presented at the 15th Annual Meeting of the Australian Social Psychologists.  Magnet Island, Queensland.

Scherl, L.A. (1988). Constructions of a Wilderness experience: Using the Repertory grid technique in a natural setting.  Australian Psychologist, 23, 225-242.

Scherl, L.A., & Smithson, M. (1986, October). A new dimension to content analysis: Exploring relationships among thematic categories.  Paper presented at the 15th Annual Meeting of the Australian Social Psychologists.  Magnet Island, Queensland.

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Shafer, E.L., & Mietz, J. (1969). Aesthetic and emotional experiences rate high with Northwest wilderness hikers.  Environment and Behavior, 1, 187-197.

Shavelson, R., Hubner, J.,  & Stanton, G.C. (1976).  Self-concept: Validation of construct interpretations.  Review of Educational Research, 46, 407-441.

Shore, A. (1977).  Outward Bound: A reference volume.  Greenwich, CT: Topp Litho.

*Smathers, K. (1975). Outward Bound in the professional education of teachers: A study of an experimental component in field experiences. Paper presented at the National Conference on Outdoor Pursuits, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC.

Smith, M.A.W. (1971). An investigation of the effects of an Outward Bound experience on selected personality factors and behaviors of high school juniors.  (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Oregon). Dissertation Abstracts International, 32, A6141.

*Smith, M.L. (1976). Final Report: Experimental study of the effects of Outward Bound.  Bureau of Educational Field Services, School of Education, University of Colorado.

*Smith, M.L., Gabriel, R., Schott, J., & Padia, W.L. (1975). Evaluation of the effects of Outward Bound.   Unpublished manuscript, Bureau of Educational Field Services, Laboratory of Educational Research, School of Education, University of Colorado.

*Spacht, R.J. (1982). The relationship between environmental concern and a selected high adventure program.  Unpublished manuscript, James Madison University, Harrisburg, Virginia.

Stitch, T.F., & Gaylor, M.S. (1983). Outward Bound: An innovative patient education program.  (ERIC Reproduction Services  No. ED 247 047)

Stitch, T.F., & Sussman, L.R. (1981). Outward Bound: An adjunctive psychiatric therapy: Preliminary research findings.  (ERIC Reproduction Service No.  ED  239791).

Stogner, J. (1978). The effects of a Wilderness Experience on self-concept an academic performance.  (Doctoral dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg VA).  Dissertation Abstracts International,  39, A4704.

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Strutt, B.E. (1966). The influence of Outward Bound courses on the personality of girls.  Research in Physical Education, 1, 1-10.

*Stuckey, J.M. (1975). Changes in self-description of teachers as a result of Outward Bound experiences. (Doctoral dissertation, The American University, 1974, Washington, DC). Dissertation Abstracts International, 35-779A.

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