Click to edit Master notes styles
UCAN Staff Seminar Series Presentation
The focus of this presentation is on
introducing you to ways in which primary empirical studies of psychological
change can use statistical techniques and knowledge from meta-analyses to
improve their quality.
N=10, because a larger effect is needed
in order to achieve statistical significance
You may be thinking that this all sounds
like some pretty difficult to understand mathematics.
On the contrary, one of the excitements about meta-analysis is that it makes
some of the most complicated research incredibly simple to understand and to
communicate to practitioners and the public.
In order to understand the meta-analytic results for outdoor education, one
must understand what an ‘effect size’ is.
Explain ES using whiteboard (using normal curves, etc.)
“In practice, a small ES can be very
impressive if, for example, the outcome is difficult to change (e.g. a
personality construct) or if the outcome is very valuable (e.g. an increase in
On the other hand, a
large ES doesn’t necessarily mean that there is any practical value if it
isn’t related to the aims of the intervention (e.g. religious
- Neill & Richards (1998, p.3)
“Cohen’s (1977) caveat that it is better
to obtain comparison standards from the professional literature than to use
arbitrary guidelines of small, medium, and large effect sizes.”
- Cason & Gills (1994, p.44)