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Risk, Challenge, & Safety
in Outdoor & Adventure Education & Recreation
Articles & References

James Neill
Last updated:
16 Dec 2003

Articles & References (alphabetical by author)

Also go to
Safety & Risk Management Articles Published in the
Journal of Experiential Education since 1976

Brown, T. (1996). Adventure risk management research - Review and action. Proceedings of the National Conference: Risk Management in the Outdoors, May, Launceston, Australia.

Conner, M. (2002). Excited delirium, restraint asphyxia, positional asphyxia and 'In-Custody Death" syndromes:  Controversial theories that may explain why some children in treatment programs die when restrained.  http://www.educationoptions.org/programs/articles/SuddenDeath.htm

Curtis, R. (2001a).  Guide to backcountry emergency procedures. OutdoorEd.com: http://www.outdoored.com/articles/Article.asp?ArticleID=124

Curtis, R. (2001b). Guide to developing a safety management program for an outdoor Organization.  OutdoorEd.com: http://www.outdoored.com/Articles/Article.asp?ArticleID=129.

Curtis, R. (2001c). Outdoor safety management.  OutdoorEd.com: http://www.outdoored.com/Articles/Article.asp?ArticleID=121.

Curtis, R. (2002a). Assessing physical fitness of participants and staff using non-exercise screening techniques.  OutdoorEd.com: http://www.outdoored.com/articles/Article.asp?ArticleID=144.

Curtis, R. (2002b). Building a risk management machine: The Safecon system. OutdoorEd.com: http://www.outdoored.com/articles/Article.asp?ArticleID=151

Curtis, R., & Cline, P. (2001). Risk management for organizations: Keeping the ship afloat. OutdoorEd.com: http://www.outdoored.com/Articles/Article.asp?ArticleID=136.

Dougherty, N. J. (1998). Outdoor recreation safety. Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL.

Garvey, D. (1998). Risk management: An international perspective. Journal of Experiential Education, 21(2).

Hansen-Stamp, C. (1997). Risk management: A difference perspective. The Outdoor Network, 8(3). http://www.adventuresafety.org/media/pub_articles/risk_mgt_perspective.htm

Hogan, R. (2002). The crux of risk management in outdoor programs - Minimising the risk of death and disabling injury. Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, 6(2), 71-79.

Hovelynck J. (1998). Learning from accident analysis: The dynamics leading up to a rafting accident. Journal of Experiential Education, 21(2), 86-95.  http://www.psy.kuleuven.ac.be/copp/-hov1998aeeb.pdf

Jack, M. (1995) Strategies for risk management in outdoor and experiential learning. Lindfield, NSW, Australia.

James. T. (1980). The paradox of safety and risk. Journal of Experiential Education, 3(2).

Johnson, J. A. (2001). Issues in insurance and risk management: How and why the insurance marketplace will change after the events of September 11 and what business owners can do to deal with increasing insurance premiums.  http://vu.iiaa.net/Docs/PDF/InsuranceIssues2001.pdf

Knight, S. (2000). The safe outdoors. Generation - Youth Issues, 29 December.  http://www.generationyouthissues.fsnet.co.uk/education/the%20safe%20outdoors.htm

McDonald, P. (1997). Ease of long practice [risk management]. Horizons, 14(3).

McAvoy, L. H. (1999). Rescue-free wilderness areas. In, Miles, J. & Priest, S. (Eds.). Adventure Education (pp. 325-330). State College, PA: Venture Publishing.

Merrill, K., & Wright, K. (2002). Conducting internal incident reviews A process for developing wilderness incident case studies.  OutdoorEd.com: http://www.outdoored.com/articles/Article.asp?ArticleID=139.

Neill, J. T. (2002).  Is Outward Bound becoming too safe?  Outward Bound International Newsletter, July.

Richards, G. E. (1978). Challenge versus safety. Paper presented to the 1st National Outdoor Education Conference, 4-18 May, Noojee Outdoor Education Centre of Melbourne State College, 1, Australia. (.1 MB)

Sharp, B. (2000).  Research into mountain accidents.  Mountaineering Council of Scotland.  http://www.mountaineering-scotland.org.uk/safety/bobsharp.html

Watters, R. (1983). Should outdoor leaders be certified?  Association of College Unions-International Bulletin, June, 1983, pp. 4-7. http://www.isu.edu/outdoor/leaders.htm

Watters, R. (1986). Minimizing the liability exposure of outdoor recreation programs.  In Outdoor Program Handbook, Ron Watters, Idaho State University Press, Pocatello, 1986, pp. 83-96.

Watters, R. (1996). Whitewater river accident analysis.  In Proceedings of 1995 International Conference on Outdoor Recreation and Education, Rena Koesler and Ron Watters (eds.), Idaho State University Press, Pocatello, ID. http://www.isu.edu/outdoor/riverpap.htm

Watters, R. (1998). Essay: The wrong side of the edge.  University of Idaho, Pocatello, ID.

Watters, R. (2001). An essay: The culture of safety.  University of Idaho, Pocatello, ID. http://www.isu.edu/outdoor/therules.htm

Wright, K., & Merrill, K. (2002). The wilderness incident investigative interview: Mitigating memory challenges utilizing the Enhanced Cognitive Interview (ECI) technique. OutdoorEd.com: http://www.outdoored.com/articles/Article.asp?ArticleID=141.

Articles on Risk, With Abstracts in the Adventure Research Cache

Models of risk and choice: Challenges or danger
Risk and adventure education.
Effect of variation in perceived risk on the secretion of beta-endorphin
Risking a Debate - Redefining Risk and Risk Management: A New Zealand Case Study
A descriptive model of enduring risk recreation involvement
Is Risk a Valuable Component of Outdoor Adventure Programmes for Young Offenders Undergoing Drug Rehabilitation?
An exploration of high-risk leisure consumption through skydiving
Motivation and disinhibition in high risk sports: Sensation seeking and self-efficacy
The role of challenge as a motivating force in academic engagement for at-risk youth: Outward bound revisited
Personality, sensation seeking and risk taking among Everest climbers
High-risk recreation: The relationship between participant characteristics and degree of involvement
'Shit Happens': The Selling of Risk in Extreme Sport
Risk creation in traveling - Backpacker adventure narration
Edgework: A social psychological analysis of voluntary risk taking
Playing the edge: Motivation and risk taking in a high-altitude wilderness-like environment
High-risk recreation: the relationship between participant characteristics, balancing performance, and degree of involvement
Risk and anxiety in adventure programming
Environmental preference and risk recreation: The case of whitewater kayakers
Sensation seeking and high-risk recreation.
Sensation seeking among high- and low-risk sports participants
Adventure therapy with girls at-risk: Responses to outdoor experiential activities
How big is the risk in wilderness treatment of adolescents?
Personality profile of subjects engaged in high physical risk sports
Involvement in risk recreation: A comparison of objective and subjective measures of engagement
The effects of Outward Bound training on the risk-taking propensity of corporate managers
Peaks and Valleys: The gendered emotional culture of edgework
Learning the Ropes: Exploring the Meaning and Value of Experiential Education for Girls at Risk.
The crux of risk management in outdoor programs - minimising the possibility of death and disabling injury
Involvement in risk recreation: A comparison of objective and subjective measures of engagement
Information sources and risk recreation: the case of whitewater kayakers
Perceived Competence as a Mediator of the Relationship Between High Risk Sports Participation and Self-Esteem
Mortality and morbidity in white water rafting in New Zealand
A review of the impact of adventure programs on at-risk youth
Injuries in mountain biking
The effects of Outward Bound training on individuals' propensity for risk taking
Factor Exploration and Confirmation for the Dimensions of an Adventure Expereince
The hero archetype and high-risk sports participants
The impact of persuasive information on changes in attitude and behavioral intentions toward risky sports for arousal-seeking versus arousal-avoidance individuals
Manufacturing adventure: The buying and selling of emotions
Refining Measures of Adventure Recreation Involvement.
Entrepreneurial decision making and  risk assessment in the midst of environmental uncertainty: The Everest disaster
Health, safety and risk in Outward Bound
Ropes Course training for youth in a rural setting: "At first I thought it was going to be boring . . ."
Controversial issues in adventure education: A critical examination
An integrated approach to crisis management in wilderness settings
Appropriate benefits for outdoor programs targeting juvenile male offenders
Individual and setting attributes of the adventure recreation experience
Learning the ropes: Challenges for change
Nature/person transactions during an outdoor adventure experience: a multi-phasic analysis
Sensation seeking among mountain climbers

Risk Book Details (American Alpine Club Library)

Beyond risk : conversations with climbers / Nicholas O'Connell. (1993)

Calculated risk : a novel / by Dougal Haston ; foreward by Doug Scott. (1980)

Douglas Haston : the philosophy of risk / Jeff Connor. (2002)

Legal liability and risk management in adventure tourism / Ross Cloutier ; with Daniel Garvey ... [et al.]. (2000)

Lessons from the edge : extreme athletes show you how to take on high risk and succeed / Maryann Karinch ; photographs by David Brooks. (2000)

Risk! : an exploration into the lives of athletes on the edge / Steve Boga. (1988)

Women who risk : profiles of women in extreme sports / Marilyn Olsen. (2001)