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Outdoor education theory

Double Diamond Model
Itin & Bandoroff

James Neill
Last updated:
31 May 2004


Double Diamond Model (Itin & Bandoroff)

Christian Itin and Scott Bandoroff developed the Double Diamond Model in the mid-1990's to explain and guide the facilitative process particularly in therapeutic adventure programs, but the model can be applied to any experiential education situation (Itin, 2002).  Basically, the model combines Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle and the therapeutic components suggested as important by famous psychotherapist, Milton Erikson.  Each individual (both the client and the therapist) is considered to undergo 4-stage Kolbian learning cycles during the intervention.  The area between the client and the therapist is the "therapeutic milieu".  Guiding this milieu is Erikson's "diamond", which has four points (important components):

  • Goal Setting

  • Tailoring

  • Gift-wrapping

  • Processing

To learn more, download some workshop handouts by Itin and Bandoroff (2001).  Itin and Bandoroff also run advanced facilitation workshops which includes exploration of the theory and use of the model.