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More Theoretical Elements Which Rattle Around in Outdoor Education's Black Box

James Neill
Last updated:
20 Dec 2003


More Theoretical Elements Which Rattle Around in Outdoor Education's Black Box...

 

This is a list of some more theoretical models or elements which have been proposed as related to outdoor education:

 

PSYCHOLOGICAL

  • Attitude and behavior mix (Ewert, 1989)

  • Attribution theory (Ewert, 1989)

  • Behavioral theory (Priest & Gass, 1997, p. 15)

  • Causal model (Ewert, 1989)

  • Cognitive theory (Priest & Gass, 1997, p. 15)

  • Competence-effectance (Ewert, 1989)

  • Expectancy theory (Ewert, 1989)

  • Goals (Priest & Gass, 1997, p. 20; Walsh & Golins, 1976)

  • Information assimilation (Priest & Gass, 1997, p. 15)

  • Risk vs. consequence

  • Self-efficacy (Ewert, 1989)

  • Stress/Arousal (Ewert, 1989)

FACILITATION / GROUP

  • Challenge contracts

    • "To serve to strive and not to yield" (Outward Bound motto)

    • Challenge by Choice (Schoel, Prouty, & Radcliffe)

    • Full value contract (Schoel, Prouty, & Radcliffe)

  • Facilitation (Gass)

  • Debriefing and reviewing (Greenaway)

  • Leader, instructor, facilitator (Priest & Gass, 1997, p. 21; Walsh & Golins, 1976)

  • Social support (Neill & Dias, 2001)

EXPERIENTIAL

  • Experiential (Priest & Gass, 1997, p. 15)

  • Learner (Priest & Gass, 1997, p. 20; Walsh & Golins, 1976)

  • Tasks/Activities (Hattie, et al, 1997; Priest & Gass, 1997, p. 21; Walsh & Golins, 1976)

  • Dramaturgy (Martin, A)