LEQ

Life Effectiveness Questionnaire References

James Neill
Last updated:
16 Feb 2011

Links to (some) research studies which have used the LEQ

Doherty, C. (2003). The effects of a public school system's one day adventure experience. Unpublished 4th year teacher education project, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia. [.zip; .04 MB]

Bailey, P. (c2005). [The effect of Duke of Edinburgh Award programs on the life effectiveness of participants].  Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.

Eagle, H., Gordon, J., & Lewis, L. (c.1999) The effects of a public school system's one day adventure experience.

Fabrizio, S. (2002). Effect of summer camp employment on residential counselors' self-perceptions of life effectiveness.  Unpublished master's thesis, Department of Kinesiology, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH.

Holmes, P. (1996). The Outdoor Experience, (TOE) program, Kids on Top II Expedition: The LEQ research findings and summary. Paper presented to the 7th International Conference on the Reduction of Drug Related Harm, May, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

Ho, S. (2003). The effects of three-day adventure-based camping programmes on the perceptions of primary five Singaporean pupils' life effectiveness. Unpublished master's thesis, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.  Part 1 [.10 MB; .doc] ; Part 2 [.26 MB; .doc] ; Appendix [.15 MB; .doc]

345 year five students (including a control group) from four Singaporean primary schools completed the Life Effectiveness Questionnaire before and after participated in a three-day adventure-based school camping programme.  The effect size was similar to the changes reported in the findings of previous meta-analytic studies outdoor education programmes with school students (.21), whilst a control group had no differences. Implications of the findings in the context of Singapore schools were further discussed and specific areas of future research were recommended in this study.
McLeod, B. (2004). An evaluation of an experiential learning and outdoor education school program on the life effectiveness skills of middle school boys. Unpublished Honours thesis, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia.

McLeod, B., & Allen-Craig, S. (2004). An evaluation of a experiential learning and outdoor education school program on the life effectiveness skills of middle school boys. Paper presented to the International Outdoor Education Research Conference, Latrobe University, Bendigo, Victoria, Australia, July 6-9.

McLeod, B., & Allen-Craig, S. (2005). An examination of outdoor education and experiential education programs on life effectiveness skills. Proceedings of the 14th National Outdoor Conference, July 2-6, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.

Miller, J. (2006). An evaluation of a cross section of Australian schools outdoor education program outcomes. Unpublished honours thesis, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia.

Miller, J., & Allen-Craig, S. (2006). An evaluation of a cross section of Australian schools' outdoor education program outcomes. Presentation to the Victorian Outdoor Education Conference, May 26-27, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Mills, B. (c.1995) Action Adventure program analysis.

Neill, J. T. (1996). The Outdoor Experience Program, Kids on Top II: Summary of Life Effectiveness outcomes. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Outward Bound Australia.

Neill, J. T. (1999a). Personal development outcomes of outdoor education programs. Poster presented at: The 11th Australasian Human Development Conference, July 8-10, 1999, University of Sydney, Australia.

Neill, J. T. (1999b). The melting pot of outdoor education effects: Testing the flavours of program type, duration and participant age. In Proceedings of the 11th National Outdoor Education Conference, 11-15 January, Perth, Western Australia: Camping and Outdoor Education Association of Western Australia, pp.112-118.

Neill, J. T. (2000a). The impact of Outward Bound Challenge Courses on disadvantaged youth sponsored by Colonial FoundationUnpublished report, University of Canberra, ACT, Australia.

Neill, J. T. (2000b).  The Life Effectiveness Questionnaire: A tool for measuring change.  Unpublished manuscript. University of Canberra, Australia.

Neill, J. T. (2002). Brief evaluation of the Mystery Adventure experience. Unpublished manuscript.  University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH.

Powers, D. L. (2004). The effects of an outdoor education program on life effectiveness skills of participants. Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Vermont, Publication Number AAT 1423059.

Purdie, N., Neill, J. T., & Richards, G. E. (2002). Australian identity and the effects of an outdoor education programAustralian Journal of Psychology, 54(1), 32-39.

Stenger, T. (2001). Sequence of adventure-based resident outdoor education programs and middle school studentsí perceptions of Life Effectiveness. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Oklahoma University, OK. [.zip; 172kb]

Terry, L. (2002). A quantitative and qualitative analysis on the effects of an adventure course: An Intervention with female adolescents.  Unpublished undergraduate thesis, Scripps College, Claremont, CA. (.zip; 1 MB) [Summary: "Do one-day ropes courses need more punch?"]

More references are listed here and here

How should the LEQ be referenced? 

Neill, J. T., Marsh, H. W., & Richards, G. E. (2003). The Life Effectiveness Questionnaire: Development and psychometrics. Unpublished manuscript, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.